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Fall of the Soviet Union

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The Creation and Collapse of the Soviet Union

The USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist alliance that existed from 1922 to 1991. The union was a group of Soviet Republics where the economy and government were highly centralized. The country was governed by a one-party state, the Communist Party, with Moscow as its Capital. Their motto was “Workers of the world, unite.”

The Creation

On December 29, 1922 the Russian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Byelorussian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR held a conference of plenipotentiary delegations to approve a treaty on the creation of the USSR (Union Soviet Socialists Republics). The 1st Congress of Soviets confirmed the documents, Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, and were signed by heads of delegations on December 30, 1922.

Soviet Union Economy

The USSR had an economy based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, industrial manufacturing, collective farming, and centralized administrative planning. They characterized the economy with macroeconomic stability, public ownership of assets, state control of investments, and high job security. Their labor force was split into two groups, one being the industry force with 80 percent and the agricultural force at 20 percent. In 1950 the Soviet Union was mainly an agrarian society but changed into a major industrial power. The main industries were petroleum, steel, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics and lumber. These industries contributed to a huge part of the economy with their main exporting goods being petroleum, petroleum products, wood, and natural gas. A major strength of the economy was its giant oil and gas supply. This became a very reliable source of income in the 1970s when the price of oil skyrocketed around the world. By 1986 world oil prices collapsed which had a huge impact on the Soviets economy. This had a huge contribution to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Soviet Union's Final Years

In 1991, many representatives of Soviet Republics have already said they were no longer part of the Soviet Union. Many of them declared a commonwealth of independent states. Out of the 15 republics, Russia and Kazakhstan were the only countries that remained. The Soviet Union has fallen due to many radical reforms. The Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev was the one that implanted these reforms during his 6 years of leadership of the Soviet Union. He was disappointed with the outcome of his nation and then resigned from his job on December 25. Luckily, this was a peaceful ending to a long, bloody, and scary time in world history. 

Original Soviet Union Members

  • Russia - Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
    • Capital is Moscow, USSR population 51.40 percent, USSR area 76.62 percent, became a member in 1922.
  • Ukraine - Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
    • Capital is Kiev, USSR population 18.03 percent, USSR area 2.71 percent, became a member in 1922.
  • Byelorussia - Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
    • Capital is Minsk, USSR population 3.54 percent , USSR area 0.93 percent, became a member in 1922.
  • Armenia - Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
    • Capital is Yerevan, USSR population 1.15 percent, USSR area 0.13 percent, became a member in 1922.
  • Georgia - Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
    • Capital is Tbilisi, USSR population 1.88 percent, USSR area 0.31 percent, became a member in 1922.
  • Azerbaijan - Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
    • Capital is Baku, USSR population 2.45 percent, USSR area 0.39 percent, became a member in 1922.

Works Cited

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.history.com/.amp/topics/cold-war/fall-of-soviet-union

https://www.britannica.com/place/Soviet-Union

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/invasion-of-the-soviet-union-june-1941

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